User Tools

Site Tools


View page as slide show

Object-Orientation Fundamentals

Mithat Konar

Why object-orientation?

  • Object-oriented programming came about to support object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD).
  • OOAD created to solve issues involved in designing and managing large applications.

Procedural thinking

  • Break down large problems into functions or procedures.
  • What needs to happen?
  • “Verb” oriented.

Object-oriented thinking

  • Break down large problems into the components (objects) that make up the problem.
  • How do they behave?
  • How do they interact?
  • “Noun” oriented.

Object-oriented languages

  • Possible to implement OOAD in any language.
  • Easier and more robust when language has support for defining and using objects: an object-oriented language.

Object-oriented concepts

  • The concept of “object” in computing comes directly from the concept of “object” in the real world.
  • Critical ideas:
    • state
    • behavior
    • encapsulation and protection
    • self-governance
  • Let’s explore this with the example of a microwave oven.


  • At any given instant, a microwave oven has a particular state.
    • Is it cooking?
    • At what power level?
    • How much cooking time is left?
    • What time does it think it is?
  • These attributes (and others) collectively define the oven’s state.


  • A microwave also has predefined behavior:
    • Push the “1” button → start cooking at maximum power for one minute.
    • Push the “+30 sec” button → add 30 seconds to the cooking time if it’s already cooking or start cooking for 30 seconds at maximum power.
    • Push a magical combination of buttons → set the internal clock.
  • These operations (and others) collectively define the oven’s behavior.
  • interface: the public-facing behavior (i.e., the operations a user can engage).


  • User changes the state of the oven only by engaging one or more of the operations in the oven’s interface.
  • Don’t need to know how a magnetron, the clock’s electronics, or anything else works to use the oven.
  • Only need to know what changes in state to expect from the “cook 1 minute” or “add 30 seconds” operations.
  • “I don’t care about how it works—I only need to know what it does,” is part of encapsulation.


  • Oven internals are protected against unwanted fiddling by screws and scary labels—for a reason.
    • “No user serviceable parts inside.”
  • protection: keeping the user out of stuff that the user should not be allowed to access.


  • The microwave oven takes responsibility for managing its own state using a set of predetermined behaviors: it’s self-governing.
  • object-oriented language: a language that let you create self-governing entities.
  • Self-governing entities are called objects.
  • object: a program entity that encapsulates state (via attributes) and behavior (via operations involving those attributes) for some meaningful abstraction.

Class-based object-orientation

  • My Farberware 4241 microwave.

  • All Farberware 4241s made from a master plan.
    • Defines what the Farberware 4241 is.
  • In computing terminology, the master plan is a class.
  • A class contains all the specifications needed to make a particular kind of object.

Class-based object-orientation

  • Objects that have been created from classes are also called instances.
  • The process of creating an instance from a class definition is called instantiation.

Prototype-based object-orientation

  • Prototype-based object-orientation: used in JavaScript and some other languages.
  • Currently less common than class-based OOP.
programming_general/object-orientation_fundamentals_slides.txt · Last modified: 2021/11/28 19:14 by mithat

Donate Powered by PHP Valid HTML5 Valid CSS Driven by DokuWiki