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computer_basics:computer_science_fundamentals

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Computer Science Fundamentals

Mithat Konar

What is computer science?

  • Webster: The study of computers and their uses.1)
  • Oxford: The study of the principles and use of computers.2)
  • University at Buffalo: The systematic study of algorithmic methods for representing and transforming information.3)

What is computer science?

  • computer science: The science of what can be computed.
  • _computational_ science
  • What is computation?

Major branches of computer science

  • algorithms
  • theory of computation
  • computer architecture
  • software systems
  • artificial intelligence

^[“UB - University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.” What Is Computer Science? Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/undergrad/what_is_CS.php.]

Computer science topics

  • computer graphics
  • databases
  • networks and protocols
  • numerical methods
  • operating systems
  • parallel computing
  • simulation and modeling
  • software engineering.

^[“UB - University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.” What Is Computer Science? Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/undergrad/what_is_CS.php.]

Application fields

![Computational fields](img/computational-fields-600px.png)

What about programming?

!['Tis but a tool](img/gear-tools-300px.png)

Algorithms

  • The word *algorithm* is derived from the name of 9th-century mathematician and astronomer Al-Khwarizmi.
    • Worked under the caliphate of al-Ma'mun in Baghdad.
    • Also introduced “al-jabr”, which in English is called “algebra”.
  • First appears in European texts in 17th century.
  • Modern usage in 19th century.

Algorithms

  • *A set of steps that are followed in order to solve a mathematical problem or to complete a computer process.*

(Webster ^[Merriam-Webster. Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/algorithm.])

  • *A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer.*

(Oxford ^[“Definition of algorithm in English:” Computer Science: Definition of Computer Science in Oxford Dictionary (American English) (US). Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/algorithm.])

Algorithm example

  • “Long” cardinal number multiplication: `A * B`

``` let C equal 0 repeat the following B times: add A to C the desired result is C ```

What is a computer?

![Computer diagram](img/computer-diagram.png)

Hardware

  • The physical stuff.

Software

  • computer software: a set of program instructions and its related data and documentation that can be executed by computer.

Kinds of software

![The software stack](img/kinds-of-software.png)

1)
Merriam-Webster. Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/computer science.
2)
“Definition of Computer Science in English:” Computer Science: Definition of Computer Science in Oxford Dictionary (American English) (US). Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/computer-science?q=computer science.
3)
“UB - University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.” What Is Computer Science? Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/undergrad/what_is_CS.php.
computer_basics/computer_science_fundamentals.1469512244.txt.gz · Last modified: 2016/07/26 05:50 by mithat