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computer_basics:a_short_history_of_operating_systems [2019/12/05 04:19]
mithat [Mobile era]
computer_basics:a_short_history_of_operating_systems [2019/12/05 04:50] (current)
mithat [GUI desktop era]
Line 5: Line 5:
  
 Mithat Konar\\ Mithat Konar\\
-Feb 192013+Dec 42019
  
 ===== The major eras ===== ===== The major eras =====
 +  * The no-OS era
   * Mainframe/midrange-server era   * Mainframe/midrange-server era
   * The personal computing era   * The personal computing era
Line 13: Line 14:
   * Open source "era"   * Open source "era"
   * Mobile era   * Mobile era
 +
 +===== The no-OS era =====
 +
 +  * **until ~1960**
 +  * Earliest computers did not have operating systems.
 +  * Expectations and capabilities were simple enough that OSes weren't needed.
 +  * Many limited-capability modern computers still don't have OSes.
 +    * Simple remote controls
 +    * Microwave oven panels
  
 ===== Mainframe/midrange-server era ===== ===== Mainframe/midrange-server era =====
  
   * **~1960-1975**   * **~1960-1975**
-  * multiuser, multitasking+  * multiuser (with authentication), multitasking
   * UNIX (late 1960's)   * UNIX (late 1960's)
     * many versions     * many versions
Line 27: Line 37:
   * **~1975-1985**   * **~1975-1985**
   * a.k.a. **microcomputer** era   * a.k.a. **microcomputer** era
-  * single user, single tasking+  * single user (no authentication), single tasking
   * CLI and menu UI   * CLI and menu UI
   * CP/M (1974)   * CP/M (1974)
Line 41: Line 51:
 ===== GUI desktop era ===== ===== GUI desktop era =====
  
-  * Windows+  * Microsoft Windows
     * 1.0 (1985), 3.1 (1992): DOS-based     * 1.0 (1985), 3.1 (1992): DOS-based
     * Windows NT (1993): UNIX competitor     * Windows NT (1993): UNIX competitor
Line 51: Line 61:
     * Windows 7 (2009): many versions     * Windows 7 (2009): many versions
     * Windows 8 (2012): one-OS-for-all-platforms, touch-centric     * Windows 8 (2012): one-OS-for-all-platforms, touch-centric
-    * Server-centric +    * Windows 10 (2015)
-      * Windows Server 2008 +
-      * Windows Home Server+
  
 ===== GUI desktop era ===== ===== GUI desktop era =====
  
-  * Apple OS X (2001) +  * Apple's Mac OS X / OS X / macOS (2001) 
-      * Unix-based (Darwin BSD)+    * Unix-based (Darwin BSD) 
 +  * Google's Chrome OS (2011) 
 +    * Linux core hosting Google Chrome and Chrome-based apps.
  
 ===== Open-source alternatives ===== ===== Open-source alternatives =====
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   * Linux (1991)   * Linux (1991)
   * BSD UNIX (open versions since ~1991)   * BSD UNIX (open versions since ~1991)
-  * Can be configured for desktop or midrange server (or larger!) +  * Great for desktop/laptop use. 
-  * Linux powers most Web servers+  * Great for servers. 
 +    * Linux powers most Web servers 
  
 ===== Mobile era ===== ===== Mobile era =====
  
   * **~2010 - present**   * **~2010 - present**
-  * Setting the stage: +  * Embedded Linux (1991) 
-    * Embedded Linux (1991) +  * Windows CE/Embedded (1996) 
-    * Windows CE/Embedded (1996) +  * Palm (1996) 
-    * Palm (1996) +  * Symbian (1997) 
-    * Symbian (1997) +  * BlackBerry OS (1999) 
-    * BlackBerry OS (1999) +  * Windows Mobile (2000
-    * Windows Mobile (2000)+  * iOS (2007) 
 +  * Android (2008)
  
 ===== Mobile era ===== ===== Mobile era =====
  
-  * iOS (2007) 
-  * Android (2008) 
   * webOS (2010)   * webOS (2010)
   * bada (2010)   * bada (2010)
Line 89: Line 100:
   * Sailfish OS (2012)   * Sailfish OS (2012)
   * Firefox OS (c. 2013)   * Firefox OS (c. 2013)
-  * Ubuntu Mobile (c. 2013)+  * Ubuntu Touch (2013
 + 
 +===== Mobile era ===== 
 + 
 +  * Android Wear / Wear OS (2014) 
 +  * watchOS (2015) 
 +  * iPadOS (2019)
   * Many small Linux projects   * Many small Linux projects
  
 ===== Not covered ===== ===== Not covered =====
  
-    * Custom OS for supercomputers, etc.+  * Custom OS for supercomputers, etc.
  
computer_basics/a_short_history_of_operating_systems.1575519596.txt.gz · Last modified: 2019/12/05 04:19 by mithat